View of archways of subway
Pedestrian subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade © Historic England DP232793
Pedestrian subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade © Historic England DP232793

23 Remarkable Places Listed in 2018

A former lifeboat house in Essex, two Rolls Royce testing hangars in Nottingham and a thatched memorial bus shelter in Dorset are among our highlights of the places listed in 2018.

From more than 900 buildings and sites listed this year, we’ve picked 23 highlights to share as we look back on 2018. Each is remarkable.

New listings in 2018

Listing - 924 including 638 war memorials
Scheduled Monuments - 19 
Parks and Gardens - 8
Battlefield - 1
TOTAL - 952

1. Old Lifeboat House, East Terrace, Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex

Listed Grade II | 1455213

The former lifeboat house, built in 1884, was designed by CH Cooke and represents the crucial role played by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) in saving lives at sea since the 19th century. Its wide gabled structure and ornamental treatment, made up of fish-scale tiling, decorative moulded brick, and a beautifully incorporated bay window, create a finely detailed and strikingly composed building.

The local community played an important part in raising funds for the site, which housed Walton’s first lifeboat, a 37ft ‘self-righter’ Norfolk/ Suffolk class ‘sailing & pulling’ lifeboat, a design suited to the East coast’s shallow waters. Baroness Bolsover launched the boat in a ceremony, held in Walton, on 18 November 1884 outside the new Lifeboat House where the boat had recently arrived by train. The distinguished guests of the ceremony were escorted through the coastal town by mounted officers of the Honourable Artillery Company along a route decorated with bunting and the Company’s flags.

2. Group of sculptures of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, Castle Place, Nottingham

Listed Grade II | 1454561

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city’s quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood.

One legend tells how Robin Hood and his Merry Men attended an archery competition hosted by the Sheriff of Nottingham at Nottingham Castle, disguised as beggars and farmers. Robin Hood reportedly celebrated winning the competition and duping the Sheriff by shooting an arrow and a thank you note through a window of the Castle, landing on the dinner table in front of the Sheriff. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle.

3. Cricket Pavilion, Upper Playing Field, Uppingham School, Rutland

Listed Grade II | 1459303

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions.

Uppingham School’s pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows.

The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Alongside the historic panelling, the cricket pavilion retains a number of its original features, including the bench lockers and panelled doors with long strap hinges.

4. Florence Mine, Egremont, West Cumbria

Listed Grade II | 1449212

Florence Mine in West Cumbria is one of the best-surviving mining sites of any type nationally and is the best-surviving example of an iron mining pit head in England: it retains a full suite of buildings complete with nearly all of its machinery and equipment.

From the mid-19th century, iron mining fundamentally altered Western Cumbria and the Furness peninsular, making a significant contribution to the national economy. However, site clearances following industrial decline in the second half of the 20th century, has left few surviving remains of the industry.

Florence Mine is believed to have been the last iron mine to close in Europe and was last worked in 2007. Hematite iron ore from the mine is used for the pigment Egremont Red, still found in some lipsticks today.

5. University of York, Central Hall, Heslington, York

Listed Grade II | 1456551

The University of York was one of seven new universities founded in England between 1958 and 1961. Central Hall is the centrepiece of the University’s western campus and has a striking and bold design. The exceptionally detailed development plan behind the campus was heralded as the beginning of contemporary university planning in Britain. The building is a concrete structure with a suspended mild steel tubular roof clad in aluminium, with the upper floors, where the auditorium is located, cantilevered out on the lake sides. The balcony is a stunning feat, running along the first-floor level on the east side of the building and rising to the second-floor level with wide concrete stairs covered by tiles. It continues a historic tradition established by late 19th century and early 20th century ‘red brick’ universities in featuring a great hall for special events.

Central Hall was designed by Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM in 1966-1968 with the notable mid-20th century architects, Stirrat Johnson-Marshall and Andrew Derbyshire.

6. University of York, Campus West designed landscape, Heslington, York

Grade II Registered Park and Garden | 1456517

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects’ masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment.

One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens.

It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust).

7. 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street, London

Listed Grade II | 1456155

Originally constructed in 1888 for the Dairy Supply Company, 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street were once the place of manufacture of the iconic milk churn. It is here that they made 17 gallon galvanised iron containers, designed for transporting milk by rail. The company was heavily associated with George Barnham, who invented the containers and went on to become chair of the British Dairy Farmers Association, Mayor of Hampstead and High Sheriff of Middlesex and was knighted in 1904.

The buildings still pay homage to their days as the headquarters of the first major manufacturer of dairy equipment, with its original signage, made of Portland stone, still intact. The exterior features ornate brick decoration which advertised the Dairy Supply Company Limited.

Far from its original use, 30 Coptic Street was sold to Pizza Express in 1965, becoming the franchise’s second restaurant. Likewise, 35 Little Russell Street has until recently been used for housing the Cartoon Museum.

8. Hopkins House 49A Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London

Listed Grade II* | 1444039

Architects Michael and Patty Hopkins built the house as a family home in 1975-1976, which also served as their office until the early 1980s. The couple designed and constructed the house as a study in making use of the maximum, flexible space of the site and were influenced by the Eames Case Study House of 1949. The house is notable for its energy efficiency, which includes the low thermal demands of the house, sparing use of materials and Venetian blinds.

The highly elegant and economic lightweight steel frame and glass building made in the High-Tech tradition, is particularly eye-catching amongst the Victorian mansions typical of Hampstead and the Regency villas that make Downshire Hill distinctive from the rest of the village.

The house won an RIBA award in 1977 and a Civic Trust Award in 1979.

Following the completion of the house, the Hopkins formed their own practice in 1976, with the house becoming the influential forerunner of the Hopkins steel and glass buildings, including for Greene King in Bury St Edmunds, Schlumberger's headquarters in Cambridge, and Fleet Infant School for Hampshire County Council in 1984-1985 The couple jointly won the RIBA Gold Medal in 1994 and Michael Hopkins went on to receive a knighthood for his achievements in 1995.

9. Sutton Heritage Action Zone: The Cock Sign, Sutton High Street

Listed Grade II | 1450261

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by ‘Gentleman Jackson’ (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title ‘Champion of England.’

The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Most gas lamp standards are quite modest structures but this is an impressive example on a large scale, with the sign being surmounted on a column of around three metres.

The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day.

10. Cattle Trough and Drinking Fountain, Spaniards Road, Hampstead, London

Listed Grade II | 1459201

Cattle troughs were once commonplace in Britain, with the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association (MDFCTA) responsible for over 1000 of them. Around 500 of these were located in London, however a large number have now been lost.

The trough in Spaniards Road was believed to have been erected in 1916, making it a particularly late example of its type. Although the pump and spout mechanism are missing, the cattle trough is an important reminder of a time when horse-drawn transport was commonplace in the early 20th century, despite the increasing use of motorised transport. In providing free drinking water for horses, charities like the MDFCTA also played an important role in raising standards in animal welfare.

11. Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade, London

Upgraded to Grade II* | 1385457

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself.

The original Crystal Palace was built to house the Great Exhibition, a vast international showcase of the applied arts that took place in Hyde Park between May and October 1851. After the exhibition closed, the enormous iron, glass and timber structure was dismantled and its components used to construct a second even larger exhibition building set on the slopes of Sydenham Hill. The subway’s historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era.

The subway was originally listed at Grade II in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II* this year.

12. 74 Dyer Street - The former Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard Offices, Cirencester, Gloucestershire

Listed Grade II | 1457440

The Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard was founded in Malmesbury in 1837 and its production moved to Cirencester in 1840. It has continued to bring local news to the people of the two counties ever since.

In 1904 the paper’s owner, George Henry Harmer, who had worked his way up through the firm from reporter to proprietor, sought to unite the printing and publishing arms of the paper on the same site for the first time, and commissioned local architect VA Lawson to design a new publishing office on a narrow site in Dyer Street, retaining the existing printing sheds to the rear. The resulting three-storey building has an imposing presence in a street of otherwise modest Cotswold buildings. It is in an Arts and Crafts style, taller than its neighbours, with jetties which project the elaborate timber-framed upper floors out over the street.

The building has kept its painted signage, although it ceased to be used by the publishers in 2017. It is an excellent example of the quality and variety that distinguishes our high streets.

13. Caynton Manor Gatehouse, Caynton, Newport, Shropshire

Listed Grade II* | 1459113

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century.

While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse.

Although in poor condition, the building is of such strong interest that it merits listing at Grade II*. This listing means that it can now been assessed for inclusion on Historic England’s Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future.

14. Memorial Bus Shelter, Osmington, West Dorset

Listed Grade II | 1455993

The thatched memorial bus shelter at Osmington in West Dorset is located on the south side of the A353 and is an important landmark in the village. It dates to around the 1940s and was built by Harry and Ethel Parry-Jones in memory of their son, David, a lieutenant in the 1st Battalion of The Rifle Brigade who died at the age of 20 on 3 August 1944 during the Battle of Normandy.

Local materials were used including Purbeck stone and thatch which complements the bus shelter’s surroundings. Despite its vulnerability as a piece of street furniture, the bus shelter has not been significantly altered since it was first built. It demonstrates that even modest and functional structures can form eloquent and valuable memorials for their local communities.

15. Wing Test Hangars, Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

Listed Grade II | 1454439

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner.

The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world’s first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle’s jet engine which had been developed on site.

A rare and distinctive building, the Wing Test Hangar is now occupied by the Hucknall branch of the Rolls Royce Heritage Trust and used as an engine museum.

16. Lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist, Newcastle on Clun, Shropshire

Listed Grade II | 1460207

The lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist in Newcastle on Clun dates from 1880 and forms a picturesque entrance to St John’s churchyard. It has both a practical and ritualistic purpose marking the transition from secular to sacred ground.

The design follows the Arts and Crafts traditions, bringing together joinery, ironmongery and slate work and is inspired by medieval predecessors. The roof mimics that of the lych gate claimed to be the oldest in the country, at the Church of St George in Beckenham, Kent, originally constructed in the 13th century. Within the timber-framed passageway of the lych gate is a revolving gate, which is an unusual feature and one of only a handful in existence in England.

‘Lych’ derives from the Anglo-Saxon or German word for corpse, and is named after the structure’s primary function of storing the coffin before burial. Lych gates also serve as a meeting point and shelter for funeral parties before they are met by the priest.

17. Former Otterington Railway Station, Station Road, South Otterington, Northallerton, North Yorkshire

Listed Grade II | 1451045

Travellers on the East Coast Main Line north of York typically pass the former Otterington Railway Station at over 100 miles per hour: blink and you miss it. This station building with its signal box was built by the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in 1932 as a replacement for the Victorian station that had been cleared away to allow the expansion of the line to four tracks.

This was part of LNER’s rivalry with the London Midland Scottish Railway in providing ever faster rail services between London and Scotland. The design of the buildings displays a 1930s streamlined aesthetic that was widely used at the time to promote a sense of modernity and speed. Perhaps in deference to more conservative architectural tastes of this part of rural North Yorkshire, the design was carefully moderated with neo-Georgian detailing. The 1930s modernity of Otterington Railway Station however never changed the fact that this was always a sleepy, little-used wayside railway station.

It closed to passengers in 1958 and to goods traffic in 1964. Its remarkable survival is owed to its passing into sympathetic private ownership.

18. The Assembly Rooms, Charlton, London

Listed Grade II | 1452263

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright-red, brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing.

Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. As a community hall, the assembly rooms were used and managed by the local Church of St Luke with Holy Trinity, during the mid-20th century, before being restored by the Save Charlton Assembly Rooms Project.

Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type.

19. Garden at Kingcombe, Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

Grade II Registered Park and Garden | 1455869

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden.

Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. It wasn’t until the 1950s and 1960s that garden designers in England would develop a truly modern garden style.

20. East Mellwaters (walled settlement 200m south-east of East Mellwaters farmhouse), County Durham

Scheduled Monument | 1449374

This walled settlement at East Mellwaters is a rare form of late prehistoric settlement. Traditionally, in Northern England, Iron Age and Romano-British native settlements take a variety of forms, with enclosures being defined by a bank and a ditch. Higher status enclosures, however, were formed of stone and have now been reduced to stony earthworks, as at East Mellwaters.

The site is adjacent to other prehistoric settlement remains, which are thought to represent a succession of settlement sites established over the centuries.

21. Cappleside Barn, Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Listed Grade II* | 1449248

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as ‘daisy-wheels’. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn.

The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches’ marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. ‘Keeping up with the Jones’s’ may have been part of the reason this barn was so ornamental, but this was probably not the sole motivation.

22. St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school, Pendeen, Cornwall

Listed Grade II | 1457305

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county’s mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows.

From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Further fittings were added to the church, as in 1986 when a timber font cover with symbols of Cornwall’s industries, including a hidden ice cream cone representing tourism, was installed. Although there was a growth in tourism to the county at this time, the main industries in Cornwall were fishing and mining. This is possibly why the ice cream cone symbol was hidden, as tourism was yet to be recognised as a major industry in Cornwall.

The castellated boundary walls surrounding the churchyard and cemetery, described by John Betjeman as ‘like a toy fort’, are an astonishing piece of architecture in this remote setting in west Cornwall.

23. Tidal Observatory, Newlyn, Cornwall

Listed Grade II | 1460225

The fishing industry in Newlyn on the south coast of Cornwall expanded in the 1880s, resulting in the construction of a new harbour and two piers. In the early 20th century, the south pier was extended to give better protection to the harbour and a tidal observatory was built at its north end. The observatory was one of three constructed at the request of Ordnance Survey to establish Mean Sea Level.

With the observatory being completed in 1914, hourly measurements were taken of the height of the tide between 1915 and 1921, determining that Newlyn was the most stable and therefore the principal place to establish Mean Sea Level for the entire country. Over the next 100 years, the observatory contributed key tidal data to studies in oceanography, geology and climate change.

Today, all heights on Ordnance Survey maps are referenced to a brass bolt within the observatory, 4.75m above Mean Sea Level - also known as Ordnance Datum Newlyn. The Ordnance Survey gave up responsibility for the tidal observatory in 1983, but it continues to be used for scientific tidal measurements, particularly for guiding climate change and coastal management studies.

Our historic buildings and places help us to make sense of our past and to understand the world we live in today. Protecting our heritage ensures that future generations can enjoy, and learn about, our rich history and I am pleased to see that a large number of important places have been added to the National Heritage List in 2018.
Michael Ellis, Heritage Minister


New designations - 952
Major amendments - 203
Minor text amendments - 4,197
Total Entries 400,127

Historic England ensures that England’s most significant places are protected and 2018 has seen some remarkable ones added to the List. From an old lifeboat house in Essex to a former railway station in Otterington to the Cock sign in Sutton high street, our fascinating history and heritage is celebrated through listing. We encourage people to understand and enjoy the wonderful range of historic places on their own doorsteps and by listing them we are protecting them for future generations.
Duncan Wilson, Chief Executive of Historic England